Accounting for Biological Warfare

Could it not be contrived to send the SmallPox among those Disaffected Tribes of Indians? We must, on this occasion, use Every Stratagem in our power to Reduce them...undated and unsigned note from Jeffrey Amherst, c. July 1763 In the summer of 1763, in the vicinity of Fort Pitt (Western Pennsylvania), occurred what is widely…

War and Numbers

Do we know how many? Counting plays a crucial role in evaluating war. We often discuss wars in terms of numbers - number of troops, number of troops killed, number of prisoners, numbers that reveal the cost of campaigns. British Weekly Army Return, 16 August 1762, Cubathe national archives, Kew (London), WO 34/55, 192-3 The…

Images of War II: Disease

This has been described as one of the best statistical graphics ever drawn. It is also a powerful portrayal of the crucial role of disease in warfare. Charles Minard (1781-1870), ‘Carte Figurative des pertes successives en hommes de l'armée française dans la campagne de Russie 1812-1813’ (1869). Often simply called 'Napoleon's March on Moscow'. Charles Minard,…